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Redshift Snippets

  • 查询所有 session
SELECT * FROM stv_sessions;
  • 终止 session
SELECT pg_terminate_backend(32281);

即,调用 pg_terminate_backend 函数,传入 process_id。

权限:普通用户只能终止自己的 session,超级用户能终止任意 session.

  • 查询正在运行的 queries

类似 MySQL 的 SHOW PROCESSLIST.

SELECT stv_recents.userid, stv_recents.status, stv_recents.starttime,
       stv_recents.duration, stv_recents.user_name, stv_recents.db_name,
       stv_recents.query, stv_recents.pid
FROM stv_recents
WHERE stv_recents.status = 'Running'::bpchar;
  • 创建数据库时报错:source database "template1" is being accessed by other users

原因:template1 数据库被其他 session 占用,锁住了。

解决方法:先从 stv_sessions 表查找 template1 相关的 session,然后用 pg_terminate_backend 杀掉。

  • 备份数据到 S3
UNLOAD ('SELECT * FROM public.category') TO 's3://redshift-backup/unload/public/category/category_'
access_key_id '<access_key_id>' secret_access_key '<secret_access_key>'
DELIMITER '|' ADDQUOTES ESCAPE ALLOWOVERWRITE;
  • 从 S3 加载数据
COPY public.category FROM 's3://redshift-backup/unload/public/category'
CREDENTIALS 'aws_access_key_id=<access_key_id>;aws_secret_access_key=<secret_access_key>'
DELIMITER '|' REMOVEQUOTES ESCAPE REGION 'cn-north-1';
  • 定义 Python UDF

文档: http://docs.aws.amazon.com/redshift/latest/dg/udf-python-language-support.html

CREATE FUNCTION f_hash(value varchar) returns varchar immutable as $$
    def sha256_hash(value):
        import hashlib, base64
        return base64.urlsafe_b64encode(hashlib.sha256(value or '').digest())
    return sha256_hash(value)
$$ language plpythonu;

SELECT address, mobile_no, f_hash(address), f_hash(mobile_no)
FROM leqi_orders LIMIT 10;
  • 查看表所占磁盘等信息
SELECT btrim(pgdb.datname::CHARACTER varying::text) AS "database",
       btrim(a.name::CHARACTER varying::text) AS "table",
       (b.mbytes::numeric::numeric(18, 0) / part.total::numeric::numeric(18, 0) * 100::numeric::numeric(18, 0))::numeric(5, 2) AS pct_of_total,
       a."rows",
       b.mbytes,
       b.unsorted_mbytes
FROM
  (SELECT id,
          db_id,
          name,
          SUM("rows") AS "rows"
   FROM stv_tbl_perm
   GROUP BY id,
            db_id,
            name) a
JOIN pg_database pgdb ON pgdb.oid = a.db_id::oid
JOIN
  (SELECT stv_blocklist.tbl,
          sum(CASE
                  WHEN stv_blocklist.unsorted = 1
                       OR stv_blocklist.unsorted IS NULL
                       AND 1 IS NULL THEN 1
                  ELSE 0
              END) AS unsorted_mbytes,
          count(*) AS mbytes
   FROM stv_blocklist
   GROUP BY stv_blocklist.tbl) b ON a.id = b.tbl
JOIN
  (SELECT sum(stv_partitions.capacity) AS total
   FROM stv_partitions
   WHERE stv_partitions.part_begin = 0) part ON 1 = 1
ORDER BY b.mbytes DESC,
         a.db_id,
         a.name

查询结果样例:

database  table pct_of_total  rows  mbytes  unsorted_mbytes
roma	mda_price_idx	0	50005	10	10
roma	mda_vendor	0	4	10	10
roma	mda_vendor	0	8	10	7
roma	sku_bodytype	0	9	10	7
  • 查看数据库里的表和字段
SELECT
  table_catalog,
  table_schema,
  table_name,
  column_name,
  data_type,
  character_maximum_length,
  column_default,
  is_nullable
FROM information_schema.columns
WHERE table_schema NOT IN ('pg_catalog', 'information_schema')
ORDER BY table_catalog, table_schema, table_name, column_name, ordinal_position;
  • 查询持有锁定的会话
SELECT a.txn_owner,
       a.txn_db,
       a.xid,
       a.pid,
       a.txn_start,
       a.lock_mode,
       a.relation                                          AS table_id,
       nvl(trim(c."name"), d.relname)                      AS tablename,
       a.granted,
       b.pid                                               AS blocking_pid,
       datediff(S, a.txn_start, getdate()) / 86400 || ' days ' || datediff(S, a.txn_start, getdate()) % 86400 / 3600 ||
       ' hrs ' || datediff(S, a.txn_start, getdate()) % 3600 / 60 || ' mins ' ||
       datediff(S, a.txn_start, getdate()) % 60 || ' secs' AS txn_duration
FROM svv_transactions a
         LEFT JOIN (SELECT pid, relation, granted FROM pg_locks GROUP BY 1, 2, 3) b
                   ON a.relation = b.relation AND a.granted = 'f' AND b.granted = 't'
         LEFT JOIN (SELECT * FROM stv_tbl_perm WHERE slice = 0) c
                   ON a.relation = c.id
         LEFT JOIN pg_class d ON a.relation = d.oid
WHERE a.relation IS NOT NULL;

查询结果样例:

txn_owner | txn_db |   xid   |  pid  |         txn_start          |      lock_mode      | table_id | tablename | granted | blocking_pid |        txn_duration         | 
----------+--------+---------+-------+----------------------------+---------------------+----------+-----------+---------+--------------+-----------------------------+
 usr1     | db1    | 5559898 | 19813 | 2018-06-30 10:51:57.485722 | AccessExclusiveLock |   351959 | lineorder | t       |              | 0 days 0 hrs 0 mins 52 secs |
 usr1     | db1    | 5559927 | 20450 | 2018-06-30 10:52:19.761199 | AccessShareLock     |   351959 | lineorder | f       |        19813 | 0 days 0 hrs 0 mins 30 secs |
 usr1     | db1    | 5559898 | 19813 | 2018-06-30 10:51:57.485722 | AccessShareLock     |   351959 | lineorder | t       |              | 0 days 0 hrs 0 mins 52 secs |
  • granted = f:说明该进程无法获得所需的锁定,因为另一个会话中的另一个事务正在持有该锁定
  • blocking_pid:显示正在持有该锁定的会话的进程 ID(此处 PID 19813 正在持有该锁定)

要释放锁定,请等待持有锁定的事务完成,或者通过运行以下命令来手动终止会话:

SELECT pg_terminate_backend(19813);

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